Fundamentals of Python

Python is a versatile programming language loved by so many data scientists, web developers, and even software engineers. To master Python for any profession, the most important step is to master the fundamentals of the Python programming language. So if you want to learn the fundamentals of the Python programming language, this article is for you. In this article, I’m going to walk you through the fundamentals of Python that you need to know before you jump into data science, web development, or any field that interests you.

Fundamentals of Python

To learn the fundamentals of Python, you should have a good knowledge of Python syntax, data structures, and built-in functions. So, to learn these concepts, you must first install the Python programming language in your system, which can be easily installed from here. Now let’s start with the fundamentals of the Python programming language.

Data Types in Python:

Data types make programming easier. A data type is a set of values and a set of operations defined on data. An implementation of a data type is an expression of data and operations in terms of a specific programming language. So, here are the data types in Python that you should know before you start learning the Python programming language:

Data TypesExamples
Numbers1234, 3.1415, 3+4j
Strings‘spam’, “Bob’s”, b’a\x01c’,
Lists[1, [2, ‘three’], 4.5]
Dictionaries{‘food’: ‘spam’, ‘taste’: ‘yum’}
Tuples(1, ‘spam’, 4, ‘U’)
Setsset(‘abc’), {‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’}


Python has a lot of built-in functions like print, len, input, etc. Besides the built-in functions of Python, you can also define your functions. A function is a block of code defined to perform a certain action. They are primarily used to replace repetitive statements in your code. You can read more about implementing functions in Python from here.


Lists are ordered collections of items and the most general data type provided by the Python programming language. They are mutable, which means that items stored in a list can be edited. A list is typically used to perform operations on a collection of items at a time. You can read more about implementing lists in Python from here.


A tuple is also a collection of items very similar to a list in Python. Like lists, they allow you to store an ordered collection of items to perform operations at one time. But unlike lists, a tuple cannot be modified once created. The only advantage of using tuples over lists is that tuples are slightly faster than lists. You can read more about implementing tuples in Python from here.


A dictionary in Python is completely different from lists and tuples, they are not sequences but mappings. Mappings are also collections of items but in the form of key and value pairs. Simply put, a dictionary contains indexes with keys mapped to certain values. You can read more about the implementation of dictionaries in Python from here.

If Else Statements:

If-else statements are conditional statements found in all programming languages. These statements are used to write an event-driven program. Simply put, these statements are used when we want to execute a set of statements only if the given condition is met. You can read more about implementing if-else statements in Python from here.


Loops are statements used to iterate over an object. There are two types of loops in Python:

  1. While Loops
  2. For Loops

A for loop is used to iterate through a collection of items. The While Loop allows you to execute a set of instructions until the given condition is true. You can read more about implementing loops in Python from here.


A class in Python is used for the task of object-oriented programming. Classes are used to create objects where the objects are instances of classes. So, to define your classes in Python, you need to use the class statements. You can read more about implementing classes in Python from here.


So these were all the fundamental concepts that you should know before starting with learning Python for Data Science, Web Development or any other profession. Learn these fundamentals of Python is very important to master Python for any profession that interests you. I hope you liked this article on the fundamentals of Python. Feel free to ask your valuable questions in the comments section below.

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Aman Kharwal
Coder with the ♥️ of a Writer || Data Scientist | Solopreneur | Founder
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