Network Security with Machine Learning

The most likely way for attackers to gain access to your infrastructure is through the network. Network security is the general practice of protecting computer networks and devices accessible to the network against malicious intent, misuse and denial. In this article, I will take you through techniques of Network Security Analysis with Machine Learning.

Exploring patterns is one of the main strengths of machine learning, and there are many inherent patterns to discover in the network traffic data. At first glance, network packet capture data may appear sporadic and random, but most communication flows follow strict network protocol.

Live network data capture is the primary way to record network activity for online or offline analysis. Like a CCTV camera at a traffic intersection, packet analyzers intercept and record network traffic. Now let’s create a network attack classifier from scratch using machine learning.

Building a Predictive Model to Classify Network Security Attacks

The dataset we will be using is the NSLKDD dataset, which is an improvement over traditional network intrusion detection. This dataset widely used by security data science professionals to classify problems of Network Security. You can download the dataset from here. Let’s start this task by importing some necessary libraries:

import os from collections import defaultdict import pandas as pd import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

Data Exploration:

Let’s look at the preliminary data to get some insight into the data. Let’s take a look at the breakdown of categories first:

dataset_root = 'datasets/nsl-kdd' train_file = os.path.join(dataset_root, 'KDDTrain+.txt') test_file = os.path.join(dataset_root, 'KDDTest+.txt') header_names = ['duration', 'protocol_type', 'service', 'flag', 'src_bytes', 'dst_bytes', 'land', 'wrong_fragment', 'urgent', 'hot', 'num_failed_logins', 'logged_in', 'num_compromised', 'root_shell', 'su_attempted', 'num_root', 'num_file_creations', 'num_shells', 'num_access_files', 'num_outbound_cmds', 'is_host_login', 'is_guest_login', 'count', 'srv_count', 'serror_rate', 'srv_serror_rate', 'rerror_rate', 'srv_rerror_rate', 'same_srv_rate', 'diff_srv_rate', 'srv_diff_host_rate', 'dst_host_count', 'dst_host_srv_count', 'dst_host_same_srv_rate', 'dst_host_diff_srv_rate', 'dst_host_same_src_port_rate', 'dst_host_srv_diff_host_rate', 'dst_host_serror_rate', 'dst_host_srv_serror_rate', 'dst_host_rerror_rate', 'dst_host_srv_rerror_rate', 'attack_type', 'success_pred'] col_names = np.array(header_names) nominal_idx = [1, 2, 3] binary_idx = [6, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21] numeric_idx = list(set(range(41)).difference(nominal_idx).difference(binary_idx)) nominal_cols = col_names[nominal_idx].tolist() binary_cols = col_names[binary_idx].tolist() numeric_cols = col_names[numeric_idx].tolist() category = defaultdict(list) category['benign'].append('normal') with open('datasets/training_attack_types.txt', 'r') as f: for line in f.readlines(): attack, cat = line.strip().split(' ') category[cat].append(attack) attack_mapping = dict((v,k) for k in category for v in category[k])

Now, here is the data that we will be using:

train_df = pd.read_csv(train_file, names=header_names) train_df['attack_category'] = train_df['attack_type'] \ .map(lambda x: attack_mapping[x]) train_df.drop(['success_pred'], axis=1, inplace=True) test_df = pd.read_csv(test_file, names=header_names) test_df['attack_category'] = test_df['attack_type'] \ .map(lambda x: attack_mapping[x]) test_df.drop(['success_pred'], axis=1, inplace=True) train_attack_types = train_df['attack_type'].value_counts() train_attack_cats = train_df['attack_category'].value_counts() test_attack_types = test_df['attack_type'].value_counts() test_attack_cats = test_df['attack_category'].value_counts() train_attack_types.plot(kind='barh', figsize=(20,10), fontsize=20)
image for post
train_attack_cats.plot(kind='barh', figsize=(20,10), fontsize=30)
Network Security Analysis

Data Preparation

The NSL-KDD dataset is a useful dataset for education and experimentation with data mining and machine learning classification because it strikes a balance between simplicity and sophistication.

Let’s start by splitting the test and training DataFrames into data and labels:

train_Y = train_df['attack_category'] train_x_raw = train_df.drop(['attack_category','attack_type'], axis=1) test_Y = test_df['attack_category'] test_x_raw = test_df.drop(['attack_category','attack_type'], axis=1)

In typical cases, we will have complete knowledge of all categorical variables either because we defined them or because the dataset provided this information. In this case of Network Security Analysis, the dataset is not provided with a list of possible values ​​of each categorical variable, so we can preprocess as follows:

combined_df_raw = pd.concat([train_x_raw, test_x_raw]) combined_df = pd.get_dummies(combined_df_raw, columns=nominal_cols, drop_first=True) train_x = combined_df[:len(train_x_raw)] test_x = combined_df[len(train_x_raw):] # Store dummy variable feature names dummy_variables = list(set(train_x)-set(combined_df_raw))

Now let’s apply the Standard Scalar Algorithm on this data to scale the dataset:

# Experimenting with StandardScaler on the single 'duration' feature from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler durations = train_x['duration'].values.reshape(-1, 1) standard_scaler = StandardScaler().fit(durations) scaled_durations = standard_scaler.transform(durations) pd.Series(scaled_durations.flatten()).describe()
count    1.259730e+05
mean     2.549477e-17
std      1.000004e+00
min     -1.102492e-01
25%     -1.102492e-01
50%     -1.102492e-01
75%     -1.102492e-01
max      1.636428e+01
dtype: float64

You can choose to use MinMaxScaler on StandardScaler if you want the scaling operation to keep the small standard deviations of the original series, or if you want to keep zero entries in the sparse data. Here’s how MinMaxScaler transforms the duration function:

from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler min_max_scaler = MinMaxScaler().fit(durations) min_max_scaled_durations = min_max_scaler.transform(durations) pd.Series(min_max_scaled_durations.flatten()).describe()
count    125973.000000
mean          0.006692
std           0.060700
min           0.000000
25%           0.000000
50%           0.000000
75%           0.000000
max           1.000000
dtype: float64

Outliers in your data can seriously and negatively skew the results of standard scaling and normalization. If the data contains outliers, sklearn.preprocessing.RobustScaler will be more suitable for this problem of Network Security. RobustScaler uses robust estimates such as median and quartile ranges, so it won’t be affected as much by outliers:

from sklearn.preprocessing import RobustScaler min_max_scaler = RobustScaler().fit(durations) robust_scaled_durations = min_max_scaler.transform(durations) pd.Series(robust_scaled_durations.flatten()).describe()
count    125973.00000
mean        287.14465
std        2604.51531
min           0.00000
25%           0.00000
50%           0.00000
75%           0.00000
max       42908.00000
dtype: float64

We complete the data preprocessing phase by standardizing training and test data:

standard_scaler = StandardScaler().fit(train_x[numeric_cols]) train_x[numeric_cols] = \ standard_scaler.transform(train_x[numeric_cols]) test_x[numeric_cols] = \ standard_scaler.transform(test_x[numeric_cols])

Classification for Network Security Analysis

By applying the default or initial best guess parameters to the algorithm, we can quickly get initial classification results for Network Security. While these results may not be close to the accuracy of our goal, they will usually give us a rough indication of the potential of the algorithm.

from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix, zero_one_loss classifier = DecisionTreeClassifier(random_state=0) classifier.fit(train_x, train_Y) pred_y = classifier.predict(test_x) results = confusion_matrix(test_Y, pred_y) error = zero_one_loss(test_Y, pred_y)
[[9365   56  289    1    0]
 [1541 5998   97    0    0]
 [ 675  220 1528    0    0]
 [2278    1   14  277    4]
 [ 179    0    5    5   11]]
0.238245209368

Also, Read – Machine Learning Algorithms and it’s Types.

With only a few lines of code and no adjustment at all, a classification accuracy of 76.2% (1 – error rate) in a five-class classification problem is not too bad. This way we can use the Network Security Analysis to improve the security of our networks.

I hope you liked this article on Network Security Analysis with Machine Learning. Feel free to ask your valuable questions in the comments section below. You can also follow me on Medium to learn every topic of Machine Learning.

Also, Read – Machine Learning in Finance.

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Aman Kharwal

I am a programmer from India, and I am here to guide you with Data Science, Machine Learning, Python, and C++ for free. I hope you will learn a lot in your journey towards Coding, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence with me.

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