The term artificial intelligence stirs emotions. For one thing there is our fascination with intelligence, which seemingly imparts to us humans a special place among life forms.
Questions arise such as What is intelligence?, How can one measure intelligence? or How does the brain work?.
All these questions are meaningful when trying to understand artificial intelligence. However, the central question for the computer scientist, is the question of the intelligent machine that behaves like a person, showing intelligent behavior.
John McCarthy, one of the pioneers of AI, was the first to define the term AI, roughly as follows:
The goal of AI is to develop machines that behave as though they were intelligent.
Clearly the above definition is insufficient because AI has the goal of solving difficult practical problems which are surely too demanding for the Braitenberg vehicle.
In the Encyclopedia Britannica one finds a Definition that goes like:
Artificial Intelligence is the ability of digital computers or computer controlled robots to solve problems that are normally associated with the higher intellectual processing capabilities of humans.
According to this definition, every computer is an AI system. This dilemma is solved elegantly by the following definition by Elaine Rich:
Artificial Intelligence is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better.
Rich, tersely and concisely, characterizes what AI researchers have been doing for the last 50 years. Even in the year 2050, this definition will be up to date.
What are the fields of Artificial Intelligence?
The Fields of AI includes
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