Book Recommendation System with Machine Learning

Book Recommendation system using K Nearest Neighbor

Recommendation systems are among the most popular applications of data science. They are used to predict the Rating or Preference that a user would give to an item.

Almost every major company has applied them in some form or the other: Amazon uses it to suggest products to customers, YouTube uses it to decide which video to play next on auto play, and Facebook uses it to recommend pages to like and people to follow.

Let’s Build our own recommendation system

In this Data Science project, you will see how to build a Book Recommendation System model using Machine Learning Techniques.

You can download the data sets we need for this task from here:

Let’s start with this project

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
books = pd.read_csv('BX-Books.csv', sep=';', error_bad_lines=False, encoding="latin-1")
books.columns = ['ISBN', 'bookTitle', 'bookAuthor', 'yearOfPublication', 'publisher', 'imageUrlS', 'imageUrlM', 'imageUrlL']
users = pd.read_csv('BX-Users.csv', sep=';', error_bad_lines=False, encoding="latin-1")
users.columns = ['userID', 'Location', 'Age']
ratings = pd.read_csv('BX-Book-Ratings.csv', sep=';', error_bad_lines=False, encoding="latin-1")
ratings.columns = ['userID', 'ISBN', 'bookRating']

print(ratings.shape)
print(list(ratings.columns))

#Output
(1149780, 3)
[‘userID’, ‘ISBN’, ‘bookRating’]

plt.rc("font", size=15)
ratings.bookRating.value_counts(sort=False).plot(kind='bar')
plt.title('Rating Distribution\n')
plt.xlabel('Rating')
plt.ylabel('Count')
plt.show()
print(books.shape)
print(list(books.columns))

#Output
(271360, 8)
[‘ISBN’, ‘bookTitle’, ‘bookAuthor’, ‘yearOfPublication’, ‘publisher’, ‘imageUrlS’, ‘imageUrlM’, ‘imageUrlL’]

print(users.shape)
print(list(users.columns))

#Output
(278858, 3)
[‘userID’, ‘Location’, ‘Age’]

users.Age.hist(bins=[0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100])
plt.title('Age Distribution\n')
plt.xlabel('Age')
plt.ylabel('Count')
plt.show()

To ensure statistical significance, users with less than 200 ratings, and books with less than 100 ratings are excluded.

counts1 = ratings['userID'].value_counts()
ratings = ratings[ratings['userID'].isin(counts1[counts1 >= 200].index)]
counts = ratings['bookRating'].value_counts()
ratings = ratings[ratings['bookRating'].isin(counts[counts >= 100].index)]

Collaborative Filtering Using k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN)

kNN is a machine learning algorithm to find clusters of similar users based on common book ratings, and make predictions using the average rating of top-k nearest neighbors.

For example, we first present ratings in a matrix with the matrix having one row for each item (book) and one column for each user.

combine_book_rating = pd.merge(ratings, books, on='ISBN')
columns = ['yearOfPublication', 'publisher', 'bookAuthor', 'imageUrlS', 'imageUrlM', 'imageUrlL']
combine_book_rating = combine_book_rating.drop(columns, axis=1)
print(combine_book_rating.head())
#Output
userID  ...                                          bookTitle
0  277427  ...  Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Ta...
1    3363  ...  Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Ta...
2   11676  ...  Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Ta...
3   12538  ...  Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Ta...
4   13552  ...  Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Ta...

[5 rows x 4 columns]

Now we will group by book titles and create a new column for total rating count.

combine_book_rating = combine_book_rating.dropna(axis = 0, subset = ['bookTitle'])

book_ratingCount = (combine_book_rating.
     groupby(by = ['bookTitle'])['bookRating'].
     count().
     reset_index().
     rename(columns = {'bookRating': 'totalRatingCount'})
     [['bookTitle', 'totalRatingCount']]
    )
print(book_ratingCount.head())
#Output
bookTitle  totalRatingCount
0   A Light in the Storm: The Civil War Diary of ...                 2
1                              Always Have Popsicles                 1
2               Apple Magic (The Collector's series)                 1
3   Beyond IBM: Leadership Marketing and Finance ...                 1
4   Clifford Visita El Hospital (Clifford El Gran...                 1

Now we will combine the rating data with the total rating count data, this gives us exactly what we need to find out which books are popular and filter out lesser-known books.

rating_with_totalRatingCount = combine_book_rating.merge(book_ratingCount, left_on = 'bookTitle', right_on = 'bookTitle', how = 'left')
print(rating_with_totalRatingCount.head())

pd.set_option('display.float_format', lambda x: '%.3f' % x)
print(book_ratingCount['totalRatingCount'].describe())
#Output
userID  ... totalRatingCount
0  277427  ...               82
1    3363  ...               82
2   11676  ...               82
3   12538  ...               82
4   13552  ...               82

[5 rows x 5 columns]
pd.set_option('display.float_format', lambda x: '%.3f' % x)
print(book_ratingCount['totalRatingCount'].describe())
#Output
count   160576.000
mean         3.044
std          7.428
min          1.000
25%          1.000
50%          1.000
75%          2.000
max        365.000
Name: totalRatingCount, dtype: float64
print(book_ratingCount['totalRatingCount'].quantile(np.arange(.9, 1, .01)))
#Output
0.900    5.000
0.910    6.000
0.920    7.000
0.930    7.000
0.940    8.000
0.950   10.000
0.960   11.000
0.970   14.000
0.980   19.000
0.990   31.000
Name: totalRatingCount, dtype: float64
popularity_threshold = 50
rating_popular_book = rating_with_totalRatingCount.query('totalRatingCount >= @popularity_threshold')
print(rating_popular_book.head())
#Output
userID  ... totalRatingCount
0  277427  ...               82
1    3363  ...               82
2   11676  ...               82
3   12538  ...               82
4   13552  ...               82

[5 rows x 5 columns]

Filter to users in US and Canada only

combined = rating_popular_book.merge(users, left_on = 'userID', right_on = 'userID', how = 'left')

us_canada_user_rating = combined[combined['Location'].str.contains("usa|canada")]
us_canada_user_rating=us_canada_user_rating.drop('Age', axis=1)
print(us_canada_user_rating.head())
#Output
userID        ISBN  ...  totalRatingCount                       Location
0  277427  002542730X  ...                82          gilbert, arizona, usa
1    3363  002542730X  ...                82      knoxville, tennessee, usa
3   12538  002542730X  ...                82          byron, minnesota, usa
4   13552  002542730X  ...                82        cordova, tennessee, usa
5   16795  002542730X  ...                82  mechanicsville, maryland, usa

[5 rows x 6 columns]

Implementing kNN

We convert our table to a 2D matrix, and fill the missing values with zeros (since we will calculate distances between rating vectors).

We then transform the values(ratings) of the matrix dataframe into a scipy sparse matrix for more efficient calculations.

from scipy.sparse import csr_matrix
us_canada_user_rating = us_canada_user_rating.drop_duplicates(['userID', 'bookTitle'])
us_canada_user_rating_pivot = us_canada_user_rating.pivot(index = 'bookTitle', columns = 'userID', values = 'bookRating').fillna(0)
us_canada_user_rating_matrix = csr_matrix(us_canada_user_rating_pivot.values)

from sklearn.neighbors import NearestNeighbors

model_knn = NearestNeighbors(metric = 'cosine', algorithm = 'brute')
model_knn.fit(us_canada_user_rating_matrix)
print(model_knn)
#Output
NearestNeighbors(algorithm='brute', leaf_size=30, metric='cosine',
                 metric_params=None, n_jobs=None, n_neighbors=5, p=2,
                 radius=1.0)
query_index = np.random.choice(us_canada_user_rating_pivot.shape[0])
print(query_index)
print(us_canada_user_rating_pivot.iloc[query_index,:].values.reshape(1,-1))
distances, indices = model_knn.kneighbors(us_canada_user_rating_pivot.iloc[query_index,:].values.reshape(1, -1), n_neighbors = 6)
us_canada_user_rating_pivot.index[query_index]
#Output
[[ 0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  7.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
  10.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0. 10.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  6.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  6.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  7.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  9.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  9.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  8.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0. 10.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  7.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0. 10.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  5.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  8.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  3.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  8.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  8.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  9.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.
   0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.]]
for i in range(0, len(distances.flatten())):
    if i == 0:
        print('Recommendations for {0}:\n'.format(us_canada_user_rating_pivot.index[query_index]))
    else:
        print('{0}: {1}, with distance of {2}:'.format(i, us_canada_user_rating_pivot.index[indices.flatten()[i]], distances.flatten()[i]))
#Output
Recommendations for Flesh and Blood:

1: The Murder Book, with distance of 0.596243943613731:
2: Choke, with distance of 0.6321092998573327:
3: Easy Prey, with distance of 0.704010041374638:
4: 2nd Chance, with distance of 0.7292664430521165:
5: The Empty Chair, with distance of 0.7432121818110763:

Follow us on Instagram for all your Queries

Default image
Aman Kharwal

I am a programmer from India, and I am here to guide you with Data Science, Machine Learning, Python, and C++ for free. I hope you will learn a lot in your journey towards Coding, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence with me.

2 Comments

  1. Hi Arman,
    I just began with your article on algorithmic Trading. And then after clicking on previous and next articles, I felt I found a treasure.
    Just great.
    Vinod Merchant

Leave a Reply