Categories
By Aman Kharwal

Web Scraping with Python

Python Tutorial for Web Scraping

Web Scraping is a technique built to extract large amounts of data from websites whereby the data is extracted and saved to a local file in your computer.

Data displayed by most websites can only be viewed using a web browser. They do not offer the functionality to save a copy of this data for personal use.

The only option then is to manually copy and paste the data, which can take many hours or sometimes days to complete is the technique of automating this process.

So instead of manually copying the data from websites, the web scraping software is used to perform the same task within a fraction of the time.

In this Tutorial we will build a program to extract Data from Wikipedia with Python on the topic “Data Science”.

import nltk
import urllib
import bs4 as bs
import re
from nltk.corpus import stopwords
nltk.download('stopwords')
# Gettings the data source
source = urllib.request.urlopen('https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_science').read()

# Parsing the data/ creating BeautifulSoup object
soup = bs.BeautifulSoup(source,'lxml')

# Fetching the data
text = ' '
for paragraph in soup.find_all('p'):
    text += paragraph.text

# Preprocessing the data
text = re.sub(r'\[[0-9]*\]',' ',text)
text = re.sub(r'\s+',' ',text)
text = text.lower()
text = re.sub(r'\d',' ',text)
text = re.sub(r'\s+',' ',text)

# Preparing the dataset
sentences = nltk.sent_tokenize(text)

sentences = [nltk.word_tokenize(sentence) for sentence in sentences]
print(sentences)
for in in sentences:
  print(i)
[nltk_data] Downloading package stopwords to
[nltk_data]     C:\Users\amank_6pcau6f\AppData\Roaming\nltk_data...
[nltk_data]   Package stopwords is already up-to-date!
[['data', 'science', 'is', 'an', 'inter-disciplinary', 'field', 'that', 'uses', 'scientific', 'methods', ',', 'processes', ',', 'algorithms', 'and', 'systems', 'to', 'extract', 'knowledge', 'and', 'insights', 'from', 'many', 'structural', 'and', 'unstructured', 'data', '.'], ['data', 'science', 'is', 'related', 'to', 'data', 'mining', ',', 'deep', 'learning', 'and', 'big', 'data', '.'], ['data', 'science', 'is', 'a', '``', 'concept', 'to', 'unify', 'statistics', ',', 'data', 'analysis', ',', 'machine', 'learning', 'and', 'their', 'related', 'methods', "''", 'in', 'order', 'to', '``', 'understand', 'and', 'analyze', 'actual', 'phenomena', "''", 'with', 'data', '.'], ['it', 'uses', 'techniques', 'and', 'theories', 'drawn', 'from', 'many', 'fields', 'within', 'the', 'context', 'of', 'mathematics', ',', 'statistics', ',', 'computer', 'science', ',', 'and', 'information', 'science', '.'], ['turing', 'award', 'winner', 'jim', 'gray', 'imagined', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'a', '``', 'fourth', 'paradigm', "''", 'of', 'science', '(', 'empirical', ',', 'theoretical', ',', 'computational', 'and', 'now', 'data-driven', ')', 'and', 'asserted', 'that', '``', 'everything', 'about', 'science', 'is', 'changing', 'because', 'of', 'the', 'impact', 'of', 'information', 'technology', "''", 'and', 'the', 'data', 'deluge', '.'], ['data', 'science', 'is', 'an', 'interdisciplinary', 'field', 'focused', 'on', 'extracting', 'knowledge', 'from', 'data', 'sets', ',', 'which', 'are', 'typically', 'large', '(', 'see', 'big', 'data', ')', '.'], ['the', 'field', 'encompasses', 'analysis', ',', 'preparing', 'data', 'for', 'analysis', ',', 'and', 'presenting', 'findings', 'to', 'inform', 'high-level', 'decisions', 'in', 'an', 'organization', '.'], ['as', 'such', ',', 'it', 'incorporates', 'skills', 'from', 'computer', 'science', ',', 'mathematics', ',', 'statistics', ',', 'information', 'visualization', ',', 'graphic', 'design', ',', 'and', 'business', '.'], ['statistician', 'nathan', 'yau', ',', 'drawing', 'on', 'ben', 'fry', ',', 'also', 'links', 'data', 'science', 'to', 'human-computer', 'interaction', ':', 'users', 'should', 'be', 'able', 'to', 'intuitively', 'control', 'and', 'explore', 'data', '.'], ['in', ',', 'the', 'american', 'statistical', 'association', 'identified', 'database', 'management', ',', 'statistics', 'and', 'machine', 'learning', ',', 'and', 'distributed', 'and', 'parallel', 'systems', 'as', 'the', 'three', 'emerging', 'foundational', 'professional', 'communities', '.'], ['many', 'statisticians', ',', 'including', 'nate', 'silver', ',', 'have', 'argued', 'that', 'data', 'science', 'is', 'not', 'a', 'new', 'field', ',', 'but', 'rather', 'another', 'name', 'for', 'statistics', '.'], ['others', 'argue', 'that', 'data', 'science', 'is', 'distinct', 'from', 'statistics', 'because', 'it', 'focuses', 'on', 'problems', 'and', 'techniques', 'unique', 'to', 'digital', 'data', '.'], ['vasant', 'dhar', 'writes', 'that', 'statistics', 'emphasizes', 'quantitative', 'data', 'and', 'description', '.'], ['in', 'contrast', ',', 'data', 'science', 'deals', 'with', 'quantitative', 'and', 'qualitative', 'data', '(', 'e.g', '.'], ['images', ')', 'and', 'emphasizes', 'prediction', 'and', 'action', '.'], ['andrew', 'gelman', 'of', 'columbia', 'university', 'and', 'data', 'scientist', 'vincent', 'granville', 'have', 'described', 'statistics', 'as', 'a', 'nonessential', 'part', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.'], ['stanford', 'professor', 'david', 'donoho', 'writes', 'that', 'data', 'science', 'is', 'not', 'distinguished', 'from', 'statistics', 'by', 'the', 'size', 'of', 'datasets', 'or', 'use', 'of', 'computing', ',', 'and', 'that', 'many', 'graduate', 'programs', 'misleadingly', 'advertise', 'their', 'analytics', 'and', 'statistics', 'training', 'as', 'the', 'essence', 'of', 'a', 'data', 'science', 'program', '.'], ['he', 'describes', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'an', 'applied', 'field', 'growing', 'out', 'of', 'traditional', 'statistics', '.'], ['in', ',', 'john', 'tukey', 'described', 'a', 'field', 'he', 'called', '"', 'data', 'analysis', ',', '"', 'which', 'resembles', 'modern', 'data', 'science', '.'], ['later', ',', 'attendees', 'at', 'a', 'statistics', 'symposium', 'at', 'the', 'university', 'of', 'montpellier', 'ii', 'acknowledged', 'the', 'emergence', 'of', 'a', 'new', 'discipline', 'focused', 'on', 'data', 'of', 'various', 'origins', 'and', 'forms', ',', 'combining', 'established', 'concepts', 'and', 'principles', 'of', 'statistics', 'and', 'data', 'analysis', 'with', 'computing', '.'], ['the', 'term', '"', 'data', 'science', '"', 'has', 'been', 'traced', 'back', 'to', ',', 'when', 'peter', 'naur', 'proposed', 'it', 'as', 'an', 'alternative', 'name', 'for', 'computer', 'science', '.'], ['in', ',', 'the', 'international', 'federation', 'of', 'classification', 'societies', 'became', 'the', 'first', 'conference', 'to', 'specifically', 'feature', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'a', 'topic', '.'], ['however', ',', 'the', 'definition', 'was', 'still', 'in', 'flux', '.'], ['in', ',', 'c.f', '.'], ['jeff', 'wu', 'suggested', 'that', 'statistics', 'should', 'be', 'renamed', 'data', 'science', '.'], ['he', 'reasoned', 'that', 'a', 'new', 'name', 'would', 'help', 'statistics', 'shed', 'inaccurate', 'stereotypes', ',', 'such', 'as', 'being', 'synonymous', 'with', 'accounting', ',', 'or', 'limited', 'to', 'describing', 'data', '.'], ['in', ',', 'chikio', 'hayashi', 'argued', 'for', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'a', 'new', ',', 'interdisciplinary', 'concept', ',', 'with', 'three', 'aspects', ':', 'data', 'design', ',', 'collection', ',', 'and', 'analysis', '.'], ['during', 'the', 's', ',', 'popular', 'terms', 'for', 'the', 'process', 'of', 'finding', 'patterns', 'in', 'datasets', '(', 'which', 'were', 'increasingly', 'large', ')', 'included', '"', 'knowledge', 'discovery', '"', 'and', '"', 'data', 'mining.', '"', 'the', 'modern', 'conception', 'of', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'an', 'independent', 'discipline', 'is', 'sometimes', 'attributed', 'to', 'william', 's.', 'cleveland', '.'], ['in', 'a', 'paper', ',', 'he', 'advocated', 'an', 'expansion', 'of', 'statistics', 'beyond', 'theory', 'into', 'technical', 'areas', ';', 'because', 'this', 'would', 'significantly', 'change', 'the', 'field', ',', 'it', 'warranted', 'a', 'new', 'name', '.'], ['``', 'data', 'science', "''", 'became', 'more', 'widely', 'used', 'in', 'the', 'next', 'few', 'years', ':', 'in', ',', 'the', 'committee', 'on', 'data', 'for', 'science', 'and', 'technology', 'launched', 'data', 'science', 'journal', '.'], ['in', ',', 'columbia', 'university', 'launched', 'the', 'journal', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.'], ['in', ',', 'the', 'american', 'statistical', 'association', "'s", 'section', 'on', 'statistical', 'learning', 'and', 'data', 'mining', 'changed', 'its', 'name', 'to', 'the', 'section', 'on', 'statistical', 'learning', 'and', 'data', 'science', ',', 'reflecting', 'the', 'ascendant', 'popularity', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.'], ['the', 'professional', 'title', 'of', '"', 'data', 'scientist', '"', 'has', 'been', 'attributed', 'to', 'dj', 'patil', 'and', 'jeff', 'hammerbacher', 'in', '.'], ['though', 'it', 'was', 'used', 'by', 'the', 'national', 'science', 'board', 'in', 'their', 'report', ',', '``', 'long-lived', 'digital', 'data', 'collections', ':', 'enabling', 'research', 'and', 'education', 'in', 'the', 'st', 'century', ',', "''", 'it', 'referred', 'broadly', 'to', 'any', 'key', 'role', 'in', 'managing', 'a', 'digital', 'data', 'collection', '.'], ['there', 'is', 'still', 'no', 'consensus', 'on', 'the', 'definition', 'of', 'data', 'science', 'and', 'it', 'is', 'considered', 'by', 'some', 'to', 'be', 'a', 'buzzword', '.'], ['data', 'science', 'is', 'a', 'growing', 'field', '.'], ['a', 'career', 'as', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', 'is', 'ranked', 'at', 'the', 'third', 'best', 'job', 'in', 'america', 'for', 'by', 'glassdoor', ',', 'and', 'was', 'ranked', 'the', 'number', 'one', 'best', 'job', 'from', '-', '.'], ['data', 'scientists', 'have', 'a', 'median', 'salary', 'of', '$', ',', 'per', 'year', 'or', '$', '.'], ['per', 'hour', '.'], ['job', 'growth', 'in', 'this', 'field', 'is', 'also', 'above', 'average', ',', 'with', 'a', 'projected', 'increase', 'of', '%', 'from', 'to', '.'], ['the', 'largest', 'employer', 'of', 'data', 'scientists', 'in', 'the', 'us', 'is', 'the', 'federal', 'government', ',', 'employing', '%', 'of', 'the', 'data', 'science', 'workforce', '.'], ['other', 'large', 'employers', 'of', 'data', 'scientists', 'are', 'computer', 'system', 'design', 'services', ',', 'research', 'and', 'development', 'laboratories', ',', 'and', 'colleges', 'and', 'universities', '.'], ['typically', ',', 'data', 'scientists', 'work', 'full', 'time', ',', 'and', 'some', 'work', 'more', 'than', 'hours', 'a', 'week', '.'], ['in', 'order', 'to', 'become', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', ',', 'there', 'is', 'a', 'significant', 'amount', 'of', 'education', 'and', 'experience', 'required', '.'], ['the', 'first', 'step', 'in', 'becoming', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', 'is', 'to', 'earn', 'a', 'bachelor', "'s", 'degree', ',', 'typically', 'in', 'a', 'field', 'related', 'to', 'computing', 'or', 'mathematics', '.'], ['coding', 'bootcamps', 'are', 'also', 'available', 'and', 'can', 'be', 'used', 'as', 'an', 'alternate', 'pre-qualification', 'to', 'supplement', 'a', 'bachelor', "'s", 'degree', 'in', 'another', 'field', '.'], ['most', 'data', 'scientists', 'also', 'complete', 'a', 'master', ''', 's', 'degree', 'or', 'a', 'phd', 'in', 'data', 'science', '.'], ['once', 'these', 'qualifications', 'are', 'met', ',', 'the', 'next', 'step', 'to', 'becoming', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', 'is', 'to', 'apply', 'for', 'an', 'entry-level', 'job', 'in', 'the', 'field', '.'], ['some', 'data', 'scientists', 'may', 'later', 'choose', 'to', 'specialize', 'in', 'a', 'sub-field', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.'], ['big', 'data', 'is', 'very', 'quickly', 'becoming', 'a', 'vital', 'tool', 'for', 'businesses', 'and', 'companies', 'of', 'all', 'sizes', '.'], ['the', 'availability', 'and', 'interpretation', 'of', 'big', 'data', 'has', 'altered', 'the', 'business', 'models', 'of', 'old', 'industries', 'and', 'enabled', 'the', 'creation', 'of', 'new', 'ones', '.'], ['data-driven', 'businesses', 'are', 'worth', '$', '.'], ['trillion', 'collectively', 'in', ',', 'an', 'increase', 'from', '$', 'billion', 'in', 'the', 'year', '.'], ['data', 'scientists', 'are', 'responsible', 'for', 'breaking', 'down', 'big', 'data', 'into', 'usable', 'information', 'and', 'creating', 'software', 'and', 'algorithms', 'that', 'help', 'companies', 'and', 'organizations', 'determine', 'optimal', 'operations', '.'], ['as', 'big', 'data', 'continues', 'to', 'have', 'a', 'major', 'impact', 'on', 'the', 'world', ',', 'data', 'science', 'does', 'as', 'well', 'due', 'to', 'the', 'close', 'relationship', 'between', 'the', 'two', '.'], ['there', 'are', 'a', 'variety', 'of', 'different', 'technologies', 'and', 'techniques', 'that', 'are', 'used', 'for', 'data', 'science', 'which', 'depend', 'on', 'the', 'application', '.']]
['data', 'science', 'is', 'an', 'inter-disciplinary', 'field', 'that', 'uses', 'scientific', 'methods', ',', 'processes', ',', 'algorithms', 'and', 'systems', 'to', 'extract', 'knowledge', 'and', 'insights', 'from', 'many', 'structural', 'and', 'unstructured', 'data', '.']
['data', 'science', 'is', 'related', 'to', 'data', 'mining', ',', 'deep', 'learning', 'and', 'big', 'data', '.']
['data', 'science', 'is', 'a', '``', 'concept', 'to', 'unify', 'statistics', ',', 'data', 'analysis', ',', 'machine', 'learning', 'and', 'their', 'related', 'methods', "''", 'in', 'order', 'to', '``', 'understand', 'and', 'analyze', 'actual', 'phenomena', "''", 'with', 'data', '.']
['it', 'uses', 'techniques', 'and', 'theories', 'drawn', 'from', 'many', 'fields', 'within', 'the', 'context', 'of', 'mathematics', ',', 'statistics', ',', 'computer', 'science', ',', 'and', 'information', 'science', '.']
['turing', 'award', 'winner', 'jim', 'gray', 'imagined', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'a', '``', 'fourth', 'paradigm', "''", 'of', 'science', '(', 'empirical', ',', 'theoretical', ',', 'computational', 'and', 'now', 'data-driven', ')', 'and', 'asserted', 'that', '``', 'everything', 'about', 'science', 'is', 'changing', 'because', 'of', 'the', 'impact', 'of', 'information', 'technology', "''", 'and', 'the', 'data', 'deluge', '.']
['data', 'science', 'is', 'an', 'interdisciplinary', 'field', 'focused', 'on', 'extracting', 'knowledge', 'from', 'data', 'sets', ',', 'which', 'are', 'typically', 'large', '(', 'see', 'big', 'data', ')', '.']
['the', 'field', 'encompasses', 'analysis', ',', 'preparing', 'data', 'for', 'analysis', ',', 'and', 'presenting', 'findings', 'to', 'inform', 'high-level', 'decisions', 'in', 'an', 'organization', '.']
['as', 'such', ',', 'it', 'incorporates', 'skills', 'from', 'computer', 'science', ',', 'mathematics', ',', 'statistics', ',', 'information', 'visualization', ',', 'graphic', 'design', ',', 'and', 'business', '.']
['statistician', 'nathan', 'yau', ',', 'drawing', 'on', 'ben', 'fry', ',', 'also', 'links', 'data', 'science', 'to', 'human-computer', 'interaction', ':', 'users', 'should', 'be', 'able', 'to', 'intuitively', 'control', 'and', 'explore', 'data', '.']
['in', ',', 'the', 'american', 'statistical', 'association', 'identified', 'database', 'management', ',', 'statistics', 'and', 'machine', 'learning', ',', 'and', 'distributed', 'and', 'parallel', 'systems', 'as', 'the', 'three', 'emerging', 'foundational', 'professional', 'communities', '.']
['many', 'statisticians', ',', 'including', 'nate', 'silver', ',', 'have', 'argued', 'that', 'data', 'science', 'is', 'not', 'a', 'new', 'field', ',', 'but', 'rather', 'another', 'name', 'for', 'statistics', '.']
['others', 'argue', 'that', 'data', 'science', 'is', 'distinct', 'from', 'statistics', 'because', 'it', 'focuses', 'on', 'problems', 'and', 'techniques', 'unique', 'to', 'digital', 'data', '.']
['vasant', 'dhar', 'writes', 'that', 'statistics', 'emphasizes', 'quantitative', 'data', 'and', 'description', '.']
['in', 'contrast', ',', 'data', 'science', 'deals', 'with', 'quantitative', 'and', 'qualitative', 'data', '(', 'e.g', '.']
['images', ')', 'and', 'emphasizes', 'prediction', 'and', 'action', '.']
['andrew', 'gelman', 'of', 'columbia', 'university', 'and', 'data', 'scientist', 'vincent', 'granville', 'have', 'described', 'statistics', 'as', 'a', 'nonessential', 'part', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.']
['stanford', 'professor', 'david', 'donoho', 'writes', 'that', 'data', 'science', 'is', 'not', 'distinguished', 'from', 'statistics', 'by', 'the', 'size', 'of', 'datasets', 'or', 'use', 'of', 'computing', ',', 'and', 'that', 'many', 'graduate', 'programs', 'misleadingly', 'advertise', 'their', 'analytics', 'and', 'statistics', 'training', 'as', 'the', 'essence', 'of', 'a', 'data', 'science', 'program', '.']
['he', 'describes', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'an', 'applied', 'field', 'growing', 'out', 'of', 'traditional', 'statistics', '.']
['in', ',', 'john', 'tukey', 'described', 'a', 'field', 'he', 'called', '"', 'data', 'analysis', ',', '"', 'which', 'resembles', 'modern', 'data', 'science', '.']
['later', ',', 'attendees', 'at', 'a', 'statistics', 'symposium', 'at', 'the', 'university', 'of', 'montpellier', 'ii', 'acknowledged', 'the', 'emergence', 'of', 'a', 'new', 'discipline', 'focused', 'on', 'data', 'of', 'various', 'origins', 'and', 'forms', ',', 'combining', 'established', 'concepts', 'and', 'principles', 'of', 'statistics', 'and', 'data', 'analysis', 'with', 'computing', '.']
['the', 'term', '"', 'data', 'science', '"', 'has', 'been', 'traced', 'back', 'to', ',', 'when', 'peter', 'naur', 'proposed', 'it', 'as', 'an', 'alternative', 'name', 'for', 'computer', 'science', '.']
['in', ',', 'the', 'international', 'federation', 'of', 'classification', 'societies', 'became', 'the', 'first', 'conference', 'to', 'specifically', 'feature', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'a', 'topic', '.']
['however', ',', 'the', 'definition', 'was', 'still', 'in', 'flux', '.']
['in', ',', 'c.f', '.']
['jeff', 'wu', 'suggested', 'that', 'statistics', 'should', 'be', 'renamed', 'data', 'science', '.']
['he', 'reasoned', 'that', 'a', 'new', 'name', 'would', 'help', 'statistics', 'shed', 'inaccurate', 'stereotypes', ',', 'such', 'as', 'being', 'synonymous', 'with', 'accounting', ',', 'or', 'limited', 'to', 'describing', 'data', '.']
['in', ',', 'chikio', 'hayashi', 'argued', 'for', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'a', 'new', ',', 'interdisciplinary', 'concept', ',', 'with', 'three', 'aspects', ':', 'data', 'design', ',', 'collection', ',', 'and', 'analysis', '.']
['during', 'the', 's', ',', 'popular', 'terms', 'for', 'the', 'process', 'of', 'finding', 'patterns', 'in', 'datasets', '(', 'which', 'were', 'increasingly', 'large', ')', 'included', '"', 'knowledge', 'discovery', '"', 'and', '"', 'data', 'mining.', '"', 'the', 'modern', 'conception', 'of', 'data', 'science', 'as', 'an', 'independent', 'discipline', 'is', 'sometimes', 'attributed', 'to', 'william', 's.', 'cleveland', '.']
['in', 'a', 'paper', ',', 'he', 'advocated', 'an', 'expansion', 'of', 'statistics', 'beyond', 'theory', 'into', 'technical', 'areas', ';', 'because', 'this', 'would', 'significantly', 'change', 'the', 'field', ',', 'it', 'warranted', 'a', 'new', 'name', '.']
['``', 'data', 'science', "''", 'became', 'more', 'widely', 'used', 'in', 'the', 'next', 'few', 'years', ':', 'in', ',', 'the', 'committee', 'on', 'data', 'for', 'science', 'and', 'technology', 'launched', 'data', 'science', 'journal', '.']
['in', ',', 'columbia', 'university', 'launched', 'the', 'journal', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.']
['in', ',', 'the', 'american', 'statistical', 'association', "'s", 'section', 'on', 'statistical', 'learning', 'and', 'data', 'mining', 'changed', 'its', 'name', 'to', 'the', 'section', 'on', 'statistical', 'learning', 'and', 'data', 'science', ',', 'reflecting', 'the', 'ascendant', 'popularity', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.']
['the', 'professional', 'title', 'of', '"', 'data', 'scientist', '"', 'has', 'been', 'attributed', 'to', 'dj', 'patil', 'and', 'jeff', 'hammerbacher', 'in', '.']
['though', 'it', 'was', 'used', 'by', 'the', 'national', 'science', 'board', 'in', 'their', 'report', ',', '``', 'long-lived', 'digital', 'data', 'collections', ':', 'enabling', 'research', 'and', 'education', 'in', 'the', 'st', 'century', ',', "''", 'it', 'referred', 'broadly', 'to', 'any', 'key', 'role', 'in', 'managing', 'a', 'digital', 'data', 'collection', '.']
['there', 'is', 'still', 'no', 'consensus', 'on', 'the', 'definition', 'of', 'data', 'science', 'and', 'it', 'is', 'considered', 'by', 'some', 'to', 'be', 'a', 'buzzword', '.']
['data', 'science', 'is', 'a', 'growing', 'field', '.']
['a', 'career', 'as', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', 'is', 'ranked', 'at', 'the', 'third', 'best', 'job', 'in', 'america', 'for', 'by', 'glassdoor', ',', 'and', 'was', 'ranked', 'the', 'number', 'one', 'best', 'job', 'from', '-', '.']
['data', 'scientists', 'have', 'a', 'median', 'salary', 'of', '$', ',', 'per', 'year', 'or', '$', '.']
['per', 'hour', '.']
['job', 'growth', 'in', 'this', 'field', 'is', 'also', 'above', 'average', ',', 'with', 'a', 'projected', 'increase', 'of', '%', 'from', 'to', '.']
['the', 'largest', 'employer', 'of', 'data', 'scientists', 'in', 'the', 'us', 'is', 'the', 'federal', 'government', ',', 'employing', '%', 'of', 'the', 'data', 'science', 'workforce', '.']
['other', 'large', 'employers', 'of', 'data', 'scientists', 'are', 'computer', 'system', 'design', 'services', ',', 'research', 'and', 'development', 'laboratories', ',', 'and', 'colleges', 'and', 'universities', '.']
['typically', ',', 'data', 'scientists', 'work', 'full', 'time', ',', 'and', 'some', 'work', 'more', 'than', 'hours', 'a', 'week', '.']
['in', 'order', 'to', 'become', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', ',', 'there', 'is', 'a', 'significant', 'amount', 'of', 'education', 'and', 'experience', 'required', '.']
['the', 'first', 'step', 'in', 'becoming', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', 'is', 'to', 'earn', 'a', 'bachelor', "'s", 'degree', ',', 'typically', 'in', 'a', 'field', 'related', 'to', 'computing', 'or', 'mathematics', '.']
['coding', 'bootcamps', 'are', 'also', 'available', 'and', 'can', 'be', 'used', 'as', 'an', 'alternate', 'pre-qualification', 'to', 'supplement', 'a', 'bachelor', "'s", 'degree', 'in', 'another', 'field', '.']
['most', 'data', 'scientists', 'also', 'complete', 'a', 'master', ''', 's', 'degree', 'or', 'a', 'phd', 'in', 'data', 'science', '.']
['once', 'these', 'qualifications', 'are', 'met', ',', 'the', 'next', 'step', 'to', 'becoming', 'a', 'data', 'scientist', 'is', 'to', 'apply', 'for', 'an', 'entry-level', 'job', 'in', 'the', 'field', '.']
['some', 'data', 'scientists', 'may', 'later', 'choose', 'to', 'specialize', 'in', 'a', 'sub-field', 'of', 'data', 'science', '.']
['big', 'data', 'is', 'very', 'quickly', 'becoming', 'a', 'vital', 'tool', 'for', 'businesses', 'and', 'companies', 'of', 'all', 'sizes', '.']
['the', 'availability', 'and', 'interpretation', 'of', 'big', 'data', 'has', 'altered', 'the', 'business', 'models', 'of', 'old', 'industries', 'and', 'enabled', 'the', 'creation', 'of', 'new', 'ones', '.']
['data-driven', 'businesses', 'are', 'worth', '$', '.']
['trillion', 'collectively', 'in', ',', 'an', 'increase', 'from', '$', 'billion', 'in', 'the', 'year', '.']
['data', 'scientists', 'are', 'responsible', 'for', 'breaking', 'down', 'big', 'data', 'into', 'usable', 'information', 'and', 'creating', 'software', 'and', 'algorithms', 'that', 'help', 'companies', 'and', 'organizations', 'determine', 'optimal', 'operations', '.']
['as', 'big', 'data', 'continues', 'to', 'have', 'a', 'major', 'impact', 'on', 'the', 'world', ',', 'data', 'science', 'does', 'as', 'well', 'due', 'to', 'the', 'close', 'relationship', 'between', 'the', 'two', '.']
['there', 'are', 'a', 'variety', 'of', 'different', 'technologies', 'and', 'techniques', 'that', 'are', 'used', 'for', 'data', 'science', 'which', 'depend', 'on', 'the', 'application', '.']

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